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Technologies and Materials for Large Supercapacitors

2010年『大容量キャパシタ技術と材料IV―エネルギー密度3倍時代をもたらした最新キャパシタ技術―』 英文版

商品コード: O0005

  • 発行元: CMC International Co., Ltd.
  • 監修: Atsushi Nishino,Katsuhiko Naoi
  • 発行日: in November 2010
  • 価格(税込): 32,400 円
  • 体裁: 189mm×265mm,238pages,hardcover
  • ISBNコード: 978-4-7813-0228-7

個数: 

カゴに入れる

刊行にあたって

 Practical research and development are now vigorously conducted to improve the energy density of the existing electrochemical capacitors.Soon we will witness high energy density capacitors of the next generation.Hybrid capacitors attract much attention due to its higher withstanding voltage and increase in energy density.In fact,the appearance of LIC(lithium ion capacitors)and NHC(Nanohybrid capacitors)is certainly regarded as the beginning of an “age of tripled energy density”.If the cost is reduced enough to meet the market's demand,they will surely grow in business.
 Meanwhile,electric double-layer capacitors(EDLCs)demonstrate outstanding characteristics such as high reliability,long-term cyclability(more than 100,000 times cyclability ),and high power densities.Such characteristics of EDLCs cannot be substituted by batteries.For example,they are very useful and indispensable particularly for application in railway equipments,heavy construction equipments and the like,which take advantage of capacitors featuring power capability.On the other hand,EDLCs have a problem of high cost due to the activated carbon and electrolyte solution that occupy roughly 30% and 40% of the whole cost of the EDLC cell,respectively.It has therefore been desired to reduce the costs of electrolyte solution and activated carbon.(The cost of activated carbon is expected to be reduced by improving the activation method and/or the washing method.) It would be promising if EDLCs of super-high power could be provided at a very low cost.As for the hybrid capacitors as well as the EDLCs,it may be possible to reduce the cost per Wh by 1/3 to 1/6 if the production bases are spread globally and recent technical innovations are applied effectively.We have high expectations for further development and progress.

October 2010

Katsuhiko Naoi,Atsushi Nishino

著者一覧

Atsushi Nishino     Nishino Engineering Consultant Office
Katsuhiko Naoi      Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
John R.Miller      JME, Inc./Case Western Reserve University
Toshio Tsubata      Asahi Kasei Corporation
Yoshiyasu Aoki      Taiyo Yuden Enagy Device Co., Ltd.
Shuichi Ishimoto     Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation
Hiroaki Hatori      National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Shushi Nishimura     KURARAY CHEMICAL Co., LTD.
Kiwamu Takeshita     JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
Kenji Hosaki       JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
Makoto Ue        Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
Meiten Koh        Daikin Industries, Ltd.
Kazumi Chiba       Japan Carlit Co., Ltd.
Shinji Naruse      DuPont Teijin Advanced Papers Limited
Hideki Shimamoto     Panasonic Electronic Devices Co., Ltd.
Masakazu Sasaki     UD Trucks Corporation
Hidemasa Yoshihara    Yaskawa Siemens Automation & Drives Corp.
Kazuhiro Okada      Shizuki Electric co., inc.
Yusuke Nakajima     Meidensha Corporation

目次

Chapter 1 The latest trend of EDLC,P-EDLC and their material source(Atsushi Nishino)
1. Outline of the electric storage elements
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The vigorous change of important resources and capacitor market status
1.2.1 Vigorous up and down of the resource materials price
1.2.2 Outline of the electric storage devices and the position of EDLC and P-EDLC
1.2.3 A sudden change of capacitor market situation
1.2.4 Present status of battery market and trend of LiB market
1.3 History of EDLC development and the trend
1.3.1 History of EDLC invention and actual application
1.3.2 The history of EDLC type and products
1.3.3 History of EDLC by its size,application equipment and activated carbon material
1.3.4 History of Specification and usage of coin type EDLC
1.4 World wide trend of EDLC and the production activities
1.4.1 Outline of EDLC
1.4.2 World major EDLC manufacturers and related companies
1.4.3 Trend of EDLC production activities
1.4.4 Major trend of world wide secondary battery for HEV and PEV use
1.4.5 EDLC related seminars and international meetings
2 The latest application and review of EDLC
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Application of EDLC to FEV and PEV
2.3 Secondary battery for HEV
2.3.1 Pb-PbO2 secondary battery
2.3.2 Ni-MH secondary battery
2.3.3 LiB- secondary battery
2.3.4 The trend of out side of Japan
2.4 Starter application for motor scooter
2.5 Application of EDLC for the solar steam power generation
2.6 The loading of EDLC for power source of construction machine
2.7 Development of the practical use of instantaneous charge/discharge equipment
2.8 Actual examples of the non-contact charger for house hold equipments
2.9 Fundamental structures of non-contact,rapid and instantaneous charging methods
2.10 List of world manufacturers of typical secondary battery and various EDLC
2.11 Summary and other EDLC loading equipments

Chapter 2 Eco-Development and Advances in Capacitor Technology(Katsuhiko Naoi)
1. Introduction
2. Wide application ranges of capacitors: contribution to environmental energy problems
3. Capacitors and batteries(and their complementary roles)
4. Hybrid capacitor
5. Future Development and Goals
6. Conclusion

Chapter 3 Review of Recent EDLC Activities in North America(John R.Miller)
1. Introduction
2. Government-sponsored Programs
3. Commercial Developments
4. Professional Events and Meetings
5. Battery and EDLC Technologies: Future Prospectives

Chapter 4 High Power density Lithium Ion Capacitor(Toshio Tsubata)
1. Introduction
2. Difference among LiB,EDLC and LiC
3. Carbon material for Negative electrode of LiC
3.1 Carbon negative electrode
3.2 Composite porous materials
3.3 Comparison between negative electrode materials for LiB and composite porous material
4. High power density LiC
4.1 Inner resistance of LiC
4.2 Performance of high power LiC
5. Closing

Chapter 5 Small Size Cylindrical Lithium Ion Capacitors(Yoshiyasu Aoki)
1. Introduction
2. Working principle and properties of lithium ion capacitors
3. Pre-doping technique
4. Outlines of the production process of cylindrical lithium ion capacitors
5. Properties of cylindrical lithium ion capacitors
5.1 Discharge rate capabilities
5.2 Temperature characteristics
5.3 Low temperature characteristics
5.4 Self-discharge characteristics
5.5 Floating charge characteristics
5.6 Charge-discharge cycle characteristics
6. Safety of cylindrical lithium ion capacitors
7. Expected development of small size lithium ion capacitors

Chapter 6 Nano-hybrid Capacitor(Katsuhiko Naoi and Shuichi Ishimoto)
1. Introduction
2. Configuration of "nano-hybrid" capacitor
3. Characteristics of nc-Li4Ti5O12/CNF composite
3.1 Nano-structure and crystallinity of nc-Li4Ti5O12/CNF
3.2 Electrochemical behavior of nc-Li4Ti5O12/CNF
4. Capacitor performances of "nano-hybrid" capacitor
5. Conclusion

Chapter 7 Carbon Nanotube Capacitors(Hiroaki Hatori)
1. Introduction
2. Production of carbon nanotube electrode
3. Properties of carbon nanotube electrode
4. Conclusion

Chapter 8 Activated Carbon for EDLC Electrode,its Research and Development Trend of KURARAY CHEMICAL Co., Ltd.(Shushi Nishimura)
1. Introduction
2. Manufacturing process of activated carbon for EDLC
2.1 Raw material process
2.2 Before treatment process
2.3 Activation process
2.4 After treatment
3. Outline and feature of main products
4. Conclusion

Chapter 9 Activated Carbon from Petroleum-Based Coke for EDLCs(Kiwamu Takeshita and Kenji Hosaki)
1. Introduction
2. Needle coke of JX NIPPON OIL & ENERGY CORPORATION
3. Activated carbon for EDLCs derived from petroleum-based coke as starting material
3.1 Material carbon
3.2 Carbonization
3.3 Activation
3.4 Washing
4. Outline and properties of products
5. Conclusion

Chapter 10 Ionic Liquid(Makoto Ue)
1. Introduction
2. The research situation of ionic liquids
3. The fundamental properties of ionic liquids
3.1 The characteristics of cation
3.2 The characteristics of anion
4. Application of ionic liquids to electrochemical capacitors
4.1 A study by Mitsubishi Chemical Corp.
4.2 A study by Nisshinbo Industries Inc.
4.3 A study by Kansai University and Dai-ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co.,Ltd.
4.4 Other Studies
5. Conclusion

Chapter 11 The development status of the high withstanding solvent(Meiten Koh)
1. A background of the development
2. A summary of the development
3. The problems and future prospect

Chapter 12 Electrolytic solution for electric double-layer capacitor using spiro-type quaternary ammonium salt(SBP)(Kazumi Chiba)
1. Introduction
2. The characteristics required in an electrolytic solution
3. Spiro-type quaternary ammonium(SBP)
4. The characteristic comparison of SBP and other electrolyte
4.1 Conductivity-concentration of electrolyte
4.2 Viscosity-temperature
4.3 Internal resistance-temperature
4.4 The discharging rate characteristics
4.5 The characteristic difference of electrolyte
5. Effect of the solvent kinds
5.1 Approach to the high conductivity
5.2 Approach to the high withstand voltage
6. Summary

Chapter 13 Aramid Separator and Aramid Binder(Shinji Naruse)
1. Aramid Separator
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Characteristics of aramid separator
1.2.1 Aramid
1.2.2 Aramid separator
1.3 Electric double-layer capacitor
1.3.1 Electric double-layer capacitor
1.3.2 Structure of capacitor
1.3.3 Properties of capacitor
1.4 Example of aramid separator applied to electric double-layer capacitor
1.4.1 Moisture adsorbed on activated carbon
1.4.2 Drying of electrode unit
1.4.3 Evaluation of withstand voltage
1.5 Conclusion
2. Aramid Binder
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristics of aramid binder
2.3 Example of aramid binder applied to electric double-layer capacitor
2.3.1 Heating treatment
2.3.2 Properties of capacitor
2.4 Conclusion

Chapter 14 Degradation Mechanism of EDLCs under High-Voltage Operation Region and Water Effects(Katsuhiko Naoi and Shuichi Ishimoto)
1. Introduction
2. Analysis of degradation mechanism
3. Polarization behavior of positive and negative activated carbon electrodes
4. Morphological change of positive and negative activated carbon electrodes
5. Generation of gas and change of moisture content in EDLC cell
5.1 Change in water content in electrolyte
5.2 Gaseous products generated from positive and negative electrodes
6. Impedance behavior in high-voltage region
7. SEI formation in pores of activated carbon
8. Changes in SEI Film Properties
9. Conclusion

Chapter 15 Dew point(humidity)of dry room,the several characteristics of EDLC,and the improvement of various production processes(Atsushi Nishino)
1. Introduction
1.1 Influence on EDLC characteristic given by the water
1.2 The influence of gasification by water in a water laminating EDLC cell
2. The facilities of Dry room and attached machineries
2.1 Dry room,Dry chamber
2.2 The basic constitution of desicount and regeneration units
2.3 Various dew point recorders
2.4 The laboratory use various Dry Box(Dry Chamber)and related construction
2.5 Dry air supply device for Dry Chamber
2.6 Dry chamber installed R&D use automatic assembly line
2.7 Production line for EDLC mass production and for LiB
3. The important materials which influence EDLC many characteristics,and an important process
3.1 The kind of binder by the electrode process and the influence in a far infrared rays drying process
3.2 Slurry stabilizer
3.3 The main manufacturing method of the polarized electrode
3.3.1 The constitution materials of polarized electrode
3.3.2 A molding processing method
3.3.3 Drying methods and EDLC characteristic
4. Safety measures(various safety valves,liquid leakage,and seal agent)
5. Manufacturing technique and safety
5.1 dew point,water,EDLC characteristic,and safety
5.2 Improvement of various EDLC product line and quality rise
5.3 Improvement of the safety
5.4 Quality improvement of various many materials and higher withstand voltage of EDLC
5.5 The future prospects of LiC
6. Conclusion

Chapter 16 Electric Double Layer Capacitor for Automotive Applications(Hideki Shimamoto)
1. Introduction
2. Automotive applications of electric double layer capacitor
3. Working principle of electric double layer capacitor
4. Characteristics necessary for large electric power assist
5. Technological development for resistance reduction
5.1 Shapes of capacitor cells
5.2 Constitution of capacitor cell
5.3 Technologies for resistance reduction
5.3.1 Structural approach for reduction of resistance between internal and external electrodes
5.3.2 Reduction of resistance of electrolyte solution(improvement of ion-conductivity)
5.3.3 Reduction of resistance of separator
5.3.4 Reduction of resistance of electrode part
5.4 Product applications of resistance reduction technologies
6. Cell structure and heat radiation ability
7. Conclusion

Chapter 17 Super Capacitor Application for High Power and Long Life Use/Hybrid Truck etc.(Masakazu Sasaki)
1. Introduction
2. Possibility and issues of hybrid trucks/buses for the environmental problem solution
2.1 Energy saving possibility of hybridization of diesel trucks and buses
2.2 Super Capacitor application for diesel hybrid tracks and buses
2.3 Performance of super capacitor charge/discharge function of hybrid truck/bus
3. Possibility of super capacitor application for expansion of wind power generation
3.1 Super Capacitor system application in wind power generation station around the micro grid area
3.2 Application possibility of combined type ESS(Super Capacitor + Battery)for wind power generation
4. The present performance and durability of super capacitor and the comparison with batteries
4.1 Comparison of super capacitor and battery in the performance and usage
4.2 Comparison of lifetime characteristics among batteries and capacitors in high frequent cycle charge/discharge operation
5. Possibility and issues of super capacitor application

Chapter 18 EDLC application for hybrid harbor crane(Hidemasa Yoshihara)
1. Introduction
2. Summary of sysem
3. Viewpoints of energy-saving
4. Method for realizing energy-saving
4.1 Diesel engine generator
4.2 EDLC
4.3 DC-DC converter
5. Summary of hybrid control
6. Design of system-monitoring and fail-safe circuits
7. Effects
8. Future subjects to be improved

Chapter 19 Instantaneous voltage down(voltage sag)compensation device(Kazuhiro Okada)
1. Preface
2. About the voltage sag
3. UPS - commercial power supply compensation devices
3.1 Market of UPS
3.2 Energy storage devices
4. Capacitor-type voltage sag compensation device
4.1 Market enters of capacitor- type voltage sag compensation device
4.2 Technical trend of EDLC type voltage sag compensation devices
4.2.1 Use of capacitor
4.2.2 Use of usual commercial feeding system
5. Conclusion

Chapter 20 Application to the Voltage Sag Compensator of the Electric Double Layer Capacitor(Yusuke Nakajima)
1. Necessity of voltage sag compensator
2. Outline of EDLC
2.1 Characteristics of EDLC used in voltage sag compensator
2.1.1 High power density
2.1.2 Long lifetime
2.1.3 Environmental performance
2.2 Structure and characteristics of bipolar laminate type EDLC
3. Application example of voltage sag compensator
3.1 Outline of voltage sag compensator
3.2 High voltage,large capacity
3.3 Continuous commercial power supply
3.4 Parallel compensation
3.5 Monitoring system
3.6 Work modes
3.6.1 EDLC initial charging mode
3.6.2 Stand-by mode
3.6.3 Voltage sag compensation mode
3.6.4 EDLC charging mode
3.6.5 EDLC full discharging mode
4. Result of performance evaluation
5. Conclusion

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