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Introductory Guide to Polymer Additives

★ 好評の「高分子添加剤ハンドブック」を英語版として再編集 !!
★ トップメーカー・ADEKAの協力の下、高分子添加剤の基礎知識から実用技術まで網羅! 高分子材料を扱う技術者必携の1冊です。

商品コード: O0012

  • 監修: ADEKA CORPORATION
  • 発行日: 2017年3月31日
  • 価格(税込): 3,024 円
  • 体裁: A5判、213ページ
  • ISBNコード: 978-4-7813-1246-0

個数: 

カゴに入れる

刊行にあたって

< Acknowledgment >

Polymer additives are indispensable for the retention, addition and enhancement of various properties of plastics articles in everyday use. Thanks to the increase in global demand of polymers, the importance of these additives is growing more than ever.

 ADEKA is a chemical manufacturer focusing on fine chemicals founded in 1917 in Japan and celebrates its 100th anniversary in 2017. Starting with PVC plasticizer manufacture in the 1950's, ADEKA has contributed to the growth of the plastic industry by providing high quality additives throughout the world for almost 70 years. During these years, we have developed numerous original products such as our nucleating agent for polypropylene, ADK STAB NA-11. Taking advantage of our strong technical development capabilities and well established production and supply chain, we have become the second largest additive manufacturer in the world.

 This book is a revised and translated edition of the “Additives Handbook” published in Japan in 2010. It includes the fundamentals of polymer stabilization, detailed descriptions of polymer additives and their applications as well as a section on trouble shooting for the practitioner. In the detailed section, the function of each type of additives from the mechanism point of view is explained. In the application section, the decomposition mechanisms of polymers and the actual additive formulation for protecting commonly used polymers including engineering plastics is described. In the trouble shooting section, solutions for stabilization problems are given, based on our long experience and are introduced in a Q & A style. This book is originally targeting junior polymer chemists but may also be a useful reference to refresh the know-how of the senior expert and may even serve as a guide for professionals with no chemical background.

 We have decided to publish this English version in celebration of our 100th anniversary. We are more than happy if this book can contribute to the further growth of the industry.

March 2017

ADEKA Corporation
General Manager, Polymer Additives Division
Toshinori Yukino

目次

Introduction

Overview

1 Types of Polymer Additives
2 Polymer Stabilizers
 2.1 Types of General Purpose Polymer Stabilizers
 2.2 Stabilizers for Polyvinyl Chlorides
 2.3 Approach when Designing Polymer Stabilizer Formulations
3 Types and Characteristics of Functionalizing Agents
 3.1 Plasticizers
 3.2 Nucleating Agents and Clarifying Agents
 3.3 Flame Retardants
 3.4 Antistatic Agents
 3.5 Lubricants

Additive Categories

Chapter 1 Polymer Stabilizers

[ I Antioxidants ]
1 Phenolic Antioxidants
 1.1 Characteristics
 1.2 Mechanism of Action
 1.3 Typical Phenolic Antioxidants
2 Phosphorous Antioxidants
 2.1 Characteristics
 2.2 Mechanism of Action
 2.3 Typical Phosphorous Antioxidants
3 Sulfur Antioxidants
 3.1 Characteristics
 3.2 Mechanism of Action
 3.3 Typical Sulfur Antioxidants

[ II Light Stabilizers ]
1 Ultraviolet Absorbers
 1.1 Mechanism of Action
 1.2 Benzotriazole Ultraviolet Absorbers
 1.4 Benzophenone Ultraviolet Absorbers
 1.5 Other Ultraviolet Absorbers
2 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers
 2.1 What Are Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers?
 2.2 Mechanism of Action
 2.3 N-H HALS
 2.4 N-Me HALS
 2.5 NO-Alkyl HALS
 2.6 Precautions for Use

[ III Metal Deactivators ]
1 Characteristics
2 Mechanism of Action
3 Typical Metal Deactivators

[ IV Stabilizers for Polyvinyl Chlorides ]
1 Types of Stabilizers
 1.1 Stabilizers Containing Pb
 1.2 Stabilizers Containing Sn
 1.3 Composite Metal Soap-based Stabilizers
 1.4 Co Stabilizers
2 Characteristics of Stabilizers
3 Mechanism of Action of Stabilizers
 3.1 Degradation of PVC
 3.2 Stabilization Mechanism
4 Precautions for Use
5 In Conclusion

Chapter 2 Functionalizing Agents

[ I Plasticizers ]
1 Characteristics of Plasticizers
2 Mechanism of Action of Plasticizers
3 Safety and Health Effects of Plasticizers
4 Typical Examples of Plasticizers
 4.1 Phthalates
 4.2 Aliphatic Dibasic Acid Esters
 4.3 Polyester Plasticizers
 4.4 Trimellitate and Pyromellitate Plasticizers
 4.5 Epoxy Plasticizers
 4.6 Phosphate Plasticizers
 4.7 Other
5 In Conclusion

[ II Nucleating Agents and Clarifying Agents ]
1 Characteristics of Nucleating Agents and Clarifying Agents
2 Mechanism of Action of Nucleating Agents and Clarifying Agents
3 Typical Examples of Nucleating Agents and Clarifying Agents
 3.1 Nucleating Agents and Clarifying Agents for Polypropylene (PP)
 3.2 Nucleating Agents for Polyethylene (PE)
 3.3 Nucleating Agents for Polybutene
 3.4 Nucleating Agents for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
 3.5 Nucleating Agents for Polylactic Acid (PLA)
 3.6 Nucleating Agents for Polyamide (PA)
 3.7 Other
4 Precautions for Use

[ III Flame Retardants ]
1 Characteristics of Flame Retardant Types
 1.1 Halogen Flame Retardants
 1.2 Phosphorus Flame Retardants
 1.3 Inorganic Flame Retardants
 1.4 Other Flame Retardants
2 Approach to Evaluation of Flame Retardancy
 2.1 Building Material Applications
 2.2 Home Appliance Housing Applications
 2.3 Electrical Wire and Cable Applications

Applications

Chapter 3 Additive Formulations for Various Resins

[ I Polyolefins ]
1 Polypropylene (PP)
 1.1 Characteristics
 1.2 Degradation Mechanism and Stabilization
 1.3 Typical Stabilizers
 1.4 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
 1.5 Examples of Formulations Designed to Improve Stiffness and Transparency
 1.6 Examples of Halogen-free Formulations Designed to Improve Flame Retardancy of PP
2 Polyethylene (PE)
 2.1 Characteristics
 2.2 Degradation Mechanism and Stabilization
 2.3 Typical Stabilizers
 2.4 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
 2.5 Examples of Halogen-free Formulations Designed to Improve Flame Retardancy of LDPE

[ II Styrol ]
1 Polystyrene (PS) Resin
 1.1 Characteristics
 1.2 Degradation Mechanism and Stabilization
 1.3 Typical Stabilizers
 1.4 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
2 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Resin
 2.1 Characteristics
 2.2 Degradation Mechanism and Stabilization
 2.3 Typical Stabilizers
 2.4 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization

[ III Engineering Plastics ]
1 Polycarbonate (PC)
 1.1 Characteristics
 1.2 Degradation Mechanism and Stabilization
 1.3 Typical Stabilizers
 1.4 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
2 Polyesters (PET and PBT)
 2.1 Characteristics
 2.2 Degradation
 2.3 Stabilization
 2.4 Typical Stabilizers
 2.5 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
3 Modified Polyphenylene Ether (m-PPE)
 3.1 Characteristics
 3.2 Degradation
 3.3 Stabilization
 3.4 Typical Stabilizers
 3.5 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
4 Polyamide (PA)
 4.1 Characteristics
 4.2 Degradation
 4.3 Stabilization
 4.4 Typical Stabilizers
 4.5 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization
5 Polyacetal (POM)
 5.1 Characteristics
 5.2 Degradation
 5.3 Stabilization
 5.4 Typical Stabilizers
 5.5 Examples of Formulations Designed for Stabilization

[ IV Polyvinyl Chlorides (PVC) ]
1 Stabilizers for Rigid PVC
 1.1 Characteristics of Rigid PVC
 1.2 Selection of Stabilizers for Rigid PVC
 1.3 Processing Properties of Stabilizers for Rigid PVC
 1.4 Example Stabilizer Formulations
2 Stabilizers for Flexible PVC
 2.1 Stabilizers for (Flexible) PVC
 2.2 Characteristics of Stabilizers for (Flexible) PVC
 2.3 Mechanism of Action of Stabilizers for (Flexible) PVC
 2.4 Typical Examples of Stabilizers for (Flexible) PVC
 2.5 Precautions for Use Practical Applications

Chapter 4 Common Problems and Selection of Additives

1 Influence of Additives during Molding
 Q&A 1: Why does plastic discoloration due to resin coloration occur?
 Q&A 2: How should problems with defective appearance of plastics be addressed?
 Q&A 3: What are the types and modifying effects of additives?

2 Extension of Heat stability
 Q&A 4: How should shortening of heat stability (due to the influence of metal) be prevented in applications in which plastics are in contact with metal or metal ions?
 Q&A 5: How should acceleration of degradation (due to the influence of temperature) be prevented during high temperature use?

3 Extension of Weathering Stability
 Q&A 6: When fillers and pigments are blended into plastic, how do they affect weatherability? (What is the difference from formulations with no pigment or talc?)
 Q&A 7: How should performance deterioration (due to the influence of acid) be prevented when using agricultural chemicals etc.?
 Q&A 8: How does temperature affect plastics during their use?

4 Discoloration
 Q&A 9: Why does NOx discoloration occur?
 Q&A 10: Why does“ yellowing in the dark” occur?
 Q&A 11: Why does light coloration occur?
 Q&A 12: Why are plastics discolored by fillers and pigments?
 Q&A 13: Why are plastics discolored by phenol?

5 Impairment of Design Aesthetics
 Q&A 14: What are blooming and bleeding?
 Q&A 15: What is fogging?

Conclusion
1 Consideration for the Global Environment
2 Next Generation Energy
3 Safety and Reliability
4 Cost Reduction
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